The Political Construction of Brazil

2017. An encompassing analysis of Brazil’s society, economy and politics since the Independence. A national-dependent interpretation. Three historical cycles of the relation state-society: State and Territorial Integration Cycle (1822-1929), Nation and Development Cycle (1930-1977) and Democracy and Social Justice Cycle (1977-2010). Crisis since then. (Book: Lynne Rienner Publishers)

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Macroeconomia Desenvolvimentista

2016. With José Luis Oreiro e Nelson Marconi. Our more complete analysis of Developmental Macroeconomics – the central economic theory within New Developmentalism. (book)

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The value of the exchange rate and the Dutch disease

Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira

Brazilian Journal of Political Economy, 33 (3), July 2013: 371-387.


This paper revisits the original (2008) paper on the Dutch disease, which defined it by the existence of two exchange rate equilibriums (the current and the industrial exchange rate equilibriums). Its novelty is in claiming that, as we have a value and a market price for each good or service, we also have a value and a market price for foreign money. The value is the cost plus reasonable profit corresponding to the exchange rate that makes competitive the country's competent business enterprises; the nominal exchange rates floats around the value according to the demand and supply of foreign money. This basic distinction of the exchange rate in terms of value and in terms of price allows us to understand that the two equilibriums are defined in value terms, and opens room for a clear distinction of the policies that affect the value from the ones that affect the market price of the exchange rate.



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